Islam and the NOI- Is there a difference?

All praise is due to Allah and may prayers and peace be upon His final Prophet and Messenger to all the worlds- Muhammad ibn Abdullah. To proceed: Many people are unclear regarding the differences in faith and doctrine between Islam and the faith and  doctrines of the branches and offshoots of the Nation of Islam (NOI) and other contemporary American Batini (heterodox esoteric) groups.

Some maintain that the beliefs and practices of say, Louis Farrakhan, is no different from Muslims elsewhere in the world. The NOI custom of referring to themselves as ‘Muslims’, and adopting Muslim practices such as fasting, etc. has added to the confusion.

To settle this question, I have produced a unique chart covering fourteen different areas of Islamic belief and doctrine, contrasting them with the beliefs and doctrines of (1) the Nation of Islam under Elijah Muhammad, (2) the Nation of Islam under Louis Farrakhan, Silis Muhammad and John Muhammad (3) the 5% Nation (4) W. D. Mohammed, (5) the Qadianis (Ahmadiyya). The chart is extensively footnoted and referenced for each group and doctrine, thus facilitating future research. (see link below)

Some may find it controversial that I’ve included and contrasted the beliefs and doctrines of the late W.D. Mohammed with those of Islam. Many maintain that after 1975 W.D. abandoned the doctrines of his father Elijah Muhammad, and steered his followers toward orthodoxy.

However, W.D’s documented record tells a very different story. From the time of Elijah Muhammad’s death in February 1975, rather than abandoning Elijah’s doctrines, W.D. promoted an esoteric reinterpretation of NOI doctrines and maintained those doctrines until his death in 2008.

Indeed, in the same way as many of Elijah Muhammad’s doctrines were no more than Watchtower Society (Jehovah Witness) adaptations, the bulk of W.D’s personal doctrines are directly gleaned from the heretical Qadianis.

I’ve provided examples and references to primary sources proving W.D. as an esoteric Batini up until his demise. This is not to say that the W.D.’s followers maintain the bulk of W.D.’s ideas. However, those who claim W.D. himself entirely rejected NOI heretical esoteric concepts and thus embraced orthodox Islam will discover the record paints a different picture.

May Allah accept this minor effort to purify the faith of Islam from those groups that claim Islam as their way, and may prayers and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah, his family, his Companions and all those who follow in their footsteps until the Day of Resurrection, ameen.

A brief outline of the differences

“I Subscribe to Every Word”

Louis Farrakhan’s consistent pattern of shirk

A collection demonstrating Louis Farrakhan’s allegiance to NOI beliefs in opposition to Islam.

1975: “I will never renounce the Honorable Elijah Muhammad.” (Washington, DC, October 9, 1975).

Al-Islam: The Islamic Movement Journal
Al-Islam: The Islamic Movement Journal

1997: In April, NBC journalist Tim Russert interviewed Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan on Meet the Press. Farrakhan responded to Russert asking if Farrakhan still maintained the NOI doctrine of ‘Yakub’s History.’ TR: Last year you gave an interview to Henry Louis Gates, a professor from Harvard, in New Yorker magazine where he asked you whether you still subscribe to the teachings of Elijah Muhammad on Yakub, a Black scientist who 6,600 years ago created the white man, and that by the end of the 20th century, a spaceship will come and rain down upon white people and people who don’t embrace Islam. Do you subscribe to the teachings of Yakub, that Yakub, the black scientist, created the white man?

MLF: I subscribe to every word that the Honorable Elijah Muhammad taught us. You know, it’s not unreal to believe that white people-who genetically cannot produce yellow, brown or black-had a Black origin. The scholars and scientists of this world agree that the origin of man and mankind started in Africa and that the first parent of the world was black. The Qur’an says that God created Adam out of black mud and fashioned him into shape. So if white people came from the original people, the black people, what is the process by which you came to life? That is not a silly question. That is a scientific question with a scientific answer. It doesn’t suggest that we are superior or that you are inferior. It suggests, however, that your birth or your origin is from the black people of this earth; superiority and inferiority is determined by our righteousness and not by our color. See

2000: “I am a student of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, and I could never thank Allah enough for His intervention in our affairs in sending among us one in the person of Master Fard Muhammad, to whom praise is due, for searching among us and finding among us someone to lead, teach and guide us, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad…[35:56] ‘It’s wonderful that you know the Arabic language, I wish I knew it. One day I will learn it. I can’t read Arabic, I can’t write Arabic. (Chicago, February 27, 2000) See [1]

2000: “Three generations after me will no longer be of me” ‘I’m not an Arabic scholar at all. I can’t really read it, and I can’t write it. But Allah never raised anybody except that he speaks the language of those to whom he is sent. And so (applause) my brothers and sister don’t know Arabic either. But that doesn’t mean I’m disqualified in representing Allah, even if I’m ignorant, unlearned in the Arabic language. It means I should learn it; I should learn it. And maybe Allah will bless me one day to learn it. But since you know it and I don’t, some of you, then you tell me if my English is not in harmony with your understanding of Arabic.” (Chicago, April, 16, 2000) See (24:32)

2011: “And thank you to those who talked about the reality of God- that He’s not a spook, somewhere, out there, somewhere. He made man in His image and His likeness. He is like we are.” (Chicago, Feb. 28, 2011) See

2012: “I am a student of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, and I could never thank Allah enough for His merciful intervention in our affairs in the person of Master W. Fard Muhammad, the great Mahdi who came among us and found one worthy to deliver His Message, first to us, the lost people, the lost sheep, then to the entire world- the Honorable Elijah Muhammad…’

“Why are we here? We are here because we come to honor a man that most of world does not know. Every year around the 26th of February, we celebrate the birth of Master Fard Muhammad. Yes, and that’s exactly why we are here. This man was born in the Holy city of Mecca, Arabia this very day, February 26, 1877. He made himself known to us on July 4th 1930. We, the members of the Nation of Islam, are witnesses of Him. Though he came not just for us alone.”

‘The real truth is, that we were to be the illuminating reflection and proof that we have had a visitation from God. Because of the transformation brought about in our lives through His Messiah, the Honorable Elijah Muhammad. He (Fard) was born from two people, his father a black man, his mother a Caucasian from the Caucasus region of Europe.” (Chicago, Feb 26, 2012) See

2013: “Today is Saviours Day for us in the Nation of Islam. It is the celebration of the birth of one who was born February 26, 1877 in the holy city of Mecca in Arabia. He made himself manifest to us on July 4th 1930, and began to teach among us fulfilling what is written in the scriptures of the coming of God under the name, ‘the Son of Man who would come out of the East into the West seeking that which was lost.’ The Great Mahdi, the long expected Guide, by the Muslims and Messiah long expected by the Christians and the Jews.

We believe that this was fulfilled in the coming of this Great One, who came under disguise looking like a Caucasian. And that would allow him to move easily among Caucasians to get to his people, the black people of America fulfilling what is written in the scriptures. He came in sinful flesh, to condemn sin in the flesh. He came as a thief in the night while the people were under the darkness of ignorance, He came. He was a light that shined in the darkness, but the darkness comprehended it not.

People saw a man, people heard a man and he did a great work. He was a holy man coming under the cover of darkness which is symbolized in the Bible as the Holy Ghost that came under darkness and came upon Mary, a virgin. A people, who were a virgin people, who had never had an intercourse relationship with God that out of them would come a Messenger of God. But today, today, today, we have had that relationship and now we have a direct connection with the Lord of the Worlds. (applause).

And after being with us, for three years and four months, in that time of intercourse or relationship, out of it came a human being- the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, as His Messenger; Messiah. But NOW, the Exalted Christ that the whole world is looking for. I stand to represent them to you as a teacher and guide and as a warner to America, Her people and the nations of the earth.” (Chicago, Feb 24, 2013) See

2014: “In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, we give Him praise and thanks for his coming in the person of Master Fard Muhammad to whom praise is due forever, the Great Mahdi. We thank Him for His coming, for the start of the Nation of Islam in this great city of Detroit. We thank Him for the work that he did, under disguise. Most of the people that saw him did not know who he was.

We thank him for coming to Detroit, to black bottom Detroit. It’s like that parable in the Bible, that a man saw a field, but in that field was a pearl of great price. And he gave all that he had to acquire that field, because in that field was a pearl of great price. Black people of Detroit, black people of America, black people of the world, you are a very, very special people. And you would not think that you were so special that God would not send you a prophet but that He would come Himself to see after you as it is written of Him. That pearl of great price is that He found here in Detroit, is the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, His Messenger Messiah, the Exalted Christ.” (Detroit, Feb 23, 2014) See

“I thank Allah (God) from the depth of my soul for His merciful intervention in our affairs in the Person of Master Fard Muhammad, to Whom Praise is due forever. For were it not for His coming, were it not for His visit among us and His love for us, and His search among us for one who would carry a weighty word that would bring us onto a path, an evolutionary path of growth and development; a journey that would bring us from a state of spiritual, mental, moral, economic and political death to The Path of Life, that on this journey we could strive to attain “the goal”—and the best of goals—and that is to be “at one with our Lord and our Creator.” (Chicago, July 28, 2014) See

 2015: “Today I’m going to weave all the scriptures together, and in that process weave us together…Dear pastors, listen carefully: God so loved the world, that He gave his only begotten son that whosoever would believe in him should not perish but have everlasting life.” (Christ University Temple, Chicago, Illinois, February 22, 2015)

“I am a student of the Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad, and I could never thank Allah enough for His Merciful intervention in our affairs in the Person of Master Fard Muhammad the Great Mahdi, who is in the world and is championing the liberation struggle of our people, particularly in the United States of America…” (20th Anniversary Million Man March, Washington, DC, October 10, 2015)

2016: “In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, we give Him praise and thanks for his Mercy to us and His intervention in our affairs, in the Person of Master W. Fard Muhammad, the long-awaited Mahdi of the Muslims. And we thank Him for his Coming to guide us out of the darkness of ignorance to a Straight Path of righteousness and decency that we might be successful. We thank Him for coming to this great city of Detroit and making Himself known to us, July 4th, 1930. He came to this city, the Mecca of industrialization. But it became the Mecca, the place the where knowledge and wisdom of the Original Man first started in this country when the black man and woman in America who was lost, was now found. We thank Allah for searching among us and finding among us the Honorable Elijah Muhammad.”

“In this great city, of Detroit, the Muhammad family which was known before as Poole, now known as Muhammad, would become the foundational stone of the rise of Islam in North America bringing up a light out of the West that would shine back toward the East that is now in darkness. We thank Allah for the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, for the Muhammad family, who endured much so Islam could be established in America…we thank Allah for Mother Clara Muhammad, the beloved wife of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad. (‘Divine Instructions and Commands for 2016’, Saviours’ Day Address, Joe Louis Arena, Detroit, Michigan, February 21, 2016). See



[1] Following Farrakhan’s recovery from cancer surgery in 1999, ISNA and other Muslim leaders officially accepted him, claiming he expressed an ‘intent to alter the group’s orientation’ and that the NOI was shedding ‘its traditional racist ideology.’ See Islamic Horizons, March/April 2000, p. 10. However, since that time he and the Nation of Islam have maintained the same ideas and message as before.

An Interview with Louis Farrakhan

By R.

Editor’s note: With regards to the author’s wishes, only the first letter of his name is used here.

Farrakhan’s organization, the so-called ‘Nation of Islam,’ has existed in the United States for more than eighty years. Founded by an ex-convict, Wallace Dodd Ford (also known as ‘W.D. Fard’ and ‘W.Fard Muhammad’)–whom members believe is ‘Allah in person’–and that co-founder, Elijah Muhammad, who died in 1975, is ‘the Messenger of Allah’, followers claim that the Resurrection is ‘mental’ not physical, that the white man is the devil, and that Paradise and Hell are states in this life. Because of their efforts, the majority of urban Americans remain confused about real Islam, since Farrakhan’s members continuously refer to themselves as ‘Muslims.’

In 1985, the Muslim World League, under the leadership of Dr. Abdullah O. Naseef, invited Louis Farrakhan and his entourage, including his wife, Betty Farrakhan, Jibril Muhammad (Bernard Cushmeer), and Tynetta Muhammad, the ex-mistress of Elijah Muhammad; to participate in the Hajj. Rumors abounded at that time that Farrakhan had declared his shahaadah in Mecca and was to be accepted thereafter as a Muslim.

Four years later, Farrakhan traveled to Saudi Arabia where he met with various officials, and was given a gift of $300,000 by Mohammed Abdu Yamani, director of Iqra Charitable Foundation. The following interview with Louis Farrakhan was conducted on the night of Jamada al-Awal, 26, 1410 (24 December,1989), in the office of Dr. Farid Al-Quraishi, the General Secretary of the IIRO (International Islamic Relief Organization).

I initially met and greeted Mr. Farrakhan and company before they entered the IIRO headquarters in Jeddah. He was accompanied by three other African-Americans who were apparently a part of his entourage as they wore the bow tie and suit in conformity with the style of clothing his organization is known for in the United States; they were also accompanied by an Arab in a blue suit whose name I did not catch.

We went upstairs to Dr. Farid Al-Qurashi’s office, accompanied by Dr. Al-Qurashi. Shortly after we arrived upstairs, Isha prayer was called and after prayer was made, Dr. Farid told Mr. Farrakhan that I had some questions for him. Mr. Farrakhan said he didn’t mind answering them and we proceeded.


Q: When did you accept Islam?

Farrakhan: In 1955.

Q: That was under the teachings of Elijah Muhammad?

Farrakhan: Yes.

Q: Do you still believe in what Elijah Muhammad taught?

Farrakhan: Yes.

Q: In other words, you still believe that the white man is the devil?

Farrakhan: Yes (pause)…of course I don’t mean you (i.e., the questioner, who is a European-American Muslim), I mean those whites who perpetuate the oppression of black people in the United States are devils. (A lengthy monologue ensues, after a pause, I ask the next question).

Q: In other words, you still believe–as is stated in your organizations’ newspaper, The Final Call–that Allah descended to the earth in the form of a man by the name of Fard Muhammad in July of 1930?

Farrakhan: Yes. (After affirming his belief in ‘Wallace Fard Muhammad’ as God in the form of a man, Mr. Farrakhan seems to realize the Islamic unacceptability of his statement and after a brief pause, he began a lengthy monologue explaining), “…Naturally I don’t mean that Wallace Fard Muhammad created the Heavens and the Earth, I would be a fool if I believed something like that.”

Note: He continues to elaborate on his belief by explaining that Fard Muhammad was, “…a means through which Allah presented himself to Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the form of a man and gave him guidance, in other words, just as the medium through which Allah presented the guidance to Muhammad (peace be upon him) was the Angel Gabriel–sometimes appearing before him in the form of a man–so too did Allah’s guidance appear before Elijah Muhammad in the form of Wallace Fard Muhammad.”[1]

Q: Do you still believe then, that Elijah Muhammad was a Messenger of Allah?

Farrakhan: Yes. (Mr. Farrakhan elaborated on his belief by stating that Allah had sent a messenger to every nation except the people of America; in particular, the oppressed black man in America, who had no messenger before the coming of Elijah Muhammad).[2]

Q: After you return to the United States, are you willing to follow the example of Malcolm X and renounce the teachings of Elijah Muhammad?

Farrakhan: No! I don’t understand why I should have to.[3] When Egyptians come here (i.e., the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), they are not asked to renounce the great Arab “Zieem” Gamal Abdul Nasser, nor are the Iranians asked to renounce the teachings of Khomeini. As Muslims we are to respect our fathers, and not disrespect them by renouncing their efforts and teachings. If I as an American black man should be expected to renounce the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, why then shouldn’t the Arab be expected to renounce the teachings of Muhammad?

Note: I explained to Farrakhan that Muhammad () was a teacher of truth and therefore, there was no need to renounce his teachings, while Elijah Muhammad did not teach truth and therefore his teachings had to be renounced. As for Mr. Khomeini, the majority of scholars have concurred that he was a kafir, nor is there anyone currently extolling Gamal Abdul Nasser in public.

Upon the last statement, the Arab in the blue suit lost control of his emotions and screamed that I had “no right to say this about Nasser” he then screamed at Dr. Quraishi, “is this what you are teaching him?” As if to say that I, or any convert Muslim hasn’t the insight to understand the Book of Allah. After the Arab regained control of himself, I continued:

Q: Then you feel it was wrong of Malcolm X to have renounced the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, and that it was right for him to have been killed?

Farrakhan: Yes! (At the same time that Mr. Farrakhan said “Yes!” his African-American companions said, “No!” in unison; after which a long pause ensued, and I was called out of the room in reference to a personal matter. May I state that for reasons of my immediate families’ safety, I not tell him the true place of my stateside residence. After all, members of his organization have been known to kill Muslims and their immediate families.[4]


[1] Farrakhan is here referring to the hadeeth of angel Gabriel appearing to Prophet Muhammad () in the form of a desert traveler. However, Farrakhan has major doctrinal errors in his argument. His allegation that a creature (in this case, an angel) appearing in human form is a ‘proof’ that the Creator can do the same (i.e. indwell in a man). Such a concept is the belief of Christians, Hindus and other non-Muslim groups. Islam defines the idea of Indwelling or incarnate deism as hulool, that is that Allah appeared on earth in physical form.

Islam holds such concepts heretical, polytheistic and the antithesis of Allah’s message and Prophetic guidance. Any Muslim who believes or claims such a concept, by default ceases to be a Muslim since it is a rejection of Islam’s very essence. Finally, Allah clearly states in the Quran that He is above His creation, and that He does not indwell, manifest, appear or incarnate in any of His creatures.

[2] Here Farrakhan displays his ignorance of well-known Quranic verses that affirm Muhammad ibn Abdullah as being sent not only to all people and races of the earth, but also to all Jinn. See

[3] Farrakhan’s inability to understand why he has to abandon Elijah, shows Farrakhan has no understanding of the shahada itself. Moreover, his insistence on adhering to Elijah’s false teachings with the excuse, “As Muslims we are to respect our fathers, and not disrespect them by renouncing their efforts and teachings”, shows a misunderstanding of basic Islamic principles.

[4] See Brutal Legacy.

What was W.D. Mohammed’s Position on..?

Over the years, many people have alleged or assumed that the relationship between Louis Farrakhan’s ‘Nation of Islam’ and W.D. Mohammed’s “ministry”, particularly since their late 1970’s organizational split, has been either non-existent or at best, strained. Occasionally, bellicose editorial letters or brief articles directly critical of Farrakhan, appeared in Muslim Journal. However, none of the articles were ever authored by W.D. Mohammed himself. Curiously, for years he remained ambiguously aloof from ever publicly pronouncing Farrakhan or Farrakhan’s personnel non-Muslims. That was the job of his followers. Yet on January 14, 1995, W.D. Mohammed declared in an interview with The State newspaper of Columbia, SC:

Question: What is the current relationship between your organization and the Nation of Islam under Minister Farrakhan?

Imam W.D. Mohammed: None what-so-ever!

[Muslim Journal, Feb. 3, 1995, p. 15]


As authoritative as his assertion may sound, the record tells a far different story. Just a few examples:

1975: In November, W.D. Mohammed gives Farrakhan $50,000 “for the many years of sacrifice and hard work rendered to the Nation,” according to a court report W.D. Mohammed files pertaining to his father’s estate. A few weeks later, Farrakhan buys a rambling brick house in an affluent Chicago suburb, a gray stone estate that would later be his new headquarters.

1978: In a Jum’ah khutbah delivered on March 24, at Masjid Elijah Muhammad in Chicago, Ill. W.D. Mohammed states: “Now here’s my word to my enemy and Farrakhan’s enemy: You bastard! You’ll never pull me out in the street to do one ounce of harm to Minister Farrakhan! You go to hell, you bastard!”

1983: American Muslim Journal, (known today simply as Muslim Journal) the organ of W.D. Mohammed’s “ministry” places a large half page announcement in its October 21 issue:

“Imam W. Deen Muhammad, Minister Louis Farrakhan meet, Issue joint statement: Imam W. Deen Muhammad, president and leader of the American Muslim Mission, and Minister Louis Farrakhan, national representative of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam, have met and have come to an agreement. They are concerned that between the followers on both sides, there should be no hostilities. “Both of us have a real interest in protecting the image of Muslims and keeping that image in a favorable light.” Because of their mutual love for Islam and for the maintenance of peace between their communities, both have agreed to future meetings.”

1984: During intense questioning by journalist Tony Brown on “America’s Black Journal,” broadcast on PBS in July, 1984, W.D. Mohammed responds to Brown in the following manner:

Tony Brown: “Well, Minister Louis Farrakhan is a Muslim minister is he not?

Warith Deen Mohammed: Yes, he’s-well, yes and no. The majority of the Muslims in the world will say that he doesn’t represent their religion on Muslims.”

1986: Farrakhan sponsors a huge Chicago rally entitled, “A Tribute to the Honorable Elijah Muhammad.” At the rally, W.D. Mohammed is treated as an honored guest. Following the rally, W.D. Mohammed makes the following declaration in Muslim Journal: “Farrakhan has declared himself a Muslim and we have to accept that.” [Muslim Journal, October 24, 1986, pp. 1, 4, 6, 12, 18]

1990: In September, The World Muslim League sponsors in Chicago, the 2nd Assembly of the Continental Council Of Masajid. Appearing on the same panel with Dr. Abdullah Naseef and Louis Farrakhan, W.D. Mohammed states: “Minister Farrakhan…I have known him personally…He is not an uneducated man but is an educated man. When he joined the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, may Allah forgive his sins and grant him Paradise, he (Farrakhan) was an educated man back then…So I believe that he (Minister Farrakhan) is sincere and that is what I am going on.” [Muslim Journal, October 12, 1990]

1992: Following his invocation before members of Congress at the Capitol, W.D. Mohammed responds to a world media curious about his position on Farrakhan: “I will never denounce him as long as he says he wants to be a Muslim.” [The Washington Times, Feb. 7, 1992, p. A6]

1993: During the peak in a year of global interest in Malcolm X, W.D. Mohammed embarks upon his European “Unity Tour,” marketing himself as, “The Principal American Black Muslim Leader.” Speaking in London to the European Muslim media, many of whom have never heard of him, Elijah Muhammad or Farrakhan, W.D. Mohammed praises his father and states: “Farrakhan respects Islam and he does a lot of good, he is friendly with us and we should be friendly with him.” [The Muslim News, May 28, 1993, p. 4]

1999: Celebrates “Savior’s Day” with Farrakhan: “I couldn’t resist coming here knowing that (The Nation of Islam) was observing this day. I haven’t lost my friendship with Minister Farrakhan.”[ Transcript from NOI “Saviour’s Day” Rally, Chicago, February 26, 1999]

2002: Praises Elijah Muhammad and declares lasting brotherhood with Louis Farrakhan. [Saviors Day ‘Family Reunion’ speech, Feb. 26, 2002, See Muslim Journal, May 3, 10,& 17, 2002]


W.D. Mohammed- The Record Speaks

Editor’s note: I originally compiled and posted this essay as an email in the mid 1990s on AOL. That early version has since been copied and re-posted on a number of websites. This current version is more comprehensive and includes public statements up to the time of W.D. Mohammed’s death in 2008.


A consistent thirty-three year pattern

Chronicling a distinct, recurring pattern spanning from W.D. Mohammed’s 1975 NOI leadership ascension up to his death in 2008

1975- Publicly declares himself “The Manifestation of God“: “Yes, I myself am an Immaculate Conception. You say, “This man is crazy.” No, I’m not crazy… After we explain it to you, you’ll know that I’m not crazy. The world has just been in darkness. I can truthfully say that My physical father was not My father. I have never had a physical father…You say, “Who is your father?” Speaking in the language of the New Testament, My Father is God…I am the Manifestation of God.… All praise is due to Allah.”[1]

1976- Claims he is recipient of divine revelation: “The Book (Bible) says that there is another kind of water (sweet water) which is not salty, that comes from above that is divine revelation. The water that God gives is divine revelation and He reveals it to His prophets.”[2] “I am baptizing you with the water that God has given me. It is the water of revelation, of divine knowledge.”[3]

1976- Alliance with cult leader Jim Jones. W.D. Mohammed makes the statement in his book, Al-Islam, Unity & Leadership, “I have been called a prophet by Christian admirers. I will say, “I am not a prophet.” [See Al-Islam, Unity & Leadership, p. 159].What W.D. Mohammed doesn’t mention was which ‘Christian admirer’ called him a ‘prophet’-cult leader  Rev. Jim Jones.


In 1978, Jim Jones led more that 900 of his ‘People’s Temple’ followers in a mass murder-suicide in Jonestown, Guyana. He and W.D. Mohammed co-produced and promoted the ‘First Inter-Religious Unity Meeting (Spiritual Jubilee)’ held in Los Angeles, California in May of 1976 .[See Bilalian News, June 4, 1976, pp. 1-3, 39-40]

This event is still listed as one of W.D. Mohammed’s ‘achievements’ in his book Challenges that Face Man Today–Vol. II, p. 151. W.D. Mohammed and Jim Jones jointly entitled the event, ‘A New Heaven and a New Earth.’ With more than 20,000 people attending, Bilalian News proudly stated Jim Jones’ praise of his ‘brother,’ W.D. Mohammed:

“The Rev. Jones called the Honorable W.D. Muhammad “a prophet” and declared: “With the alternatives I see on the horizon, I only wish he were running for President.”[See Bilalian News, June 4, 1976, p. 39].

1977- Declares Islamic plural marriage forbidden: “The teaching of Muhammad and the teaching of the Qur’an is that “one is better for you if you but knew.” No other Prophet did this for the polygamist mankind. It was Prophet Muhammad who worked against polygamy.”[4]

1978- Rejects miracles of the prophets: “Moses, being pursued by Pharaoh’s army, struck the water and the Red Sea parted, so the Book says, and Moses and his people walked across on dry land… Brother and sister, you will never convert intelligent people to religion today with unrealistic symbolical stories like that.”[5]

Sanctions prophetic claimant, Rashad Khalifa. Offers followers “20% discount” on purchase of Khalifa’s works.[6]


Endorses Qadiani translation of Quran.[7]

1979- Denies Return of Jesus and proclaims himself, “Masih-Mahdi”: “Jesus did his work… he’s not coming back here­never! That’s not the way of God. But his type has to return, another birth like his has to happen, has to happen, to produce his type again. So that his type will be able to see, the lies that have been told concerning his birth. It’s not him but its the same as though he’s the original. I know how Jesus is born because I’ve been born that way! So you can’t tell me how Jesus was born, I’ve been born that way!” “…well then you’re a Prophet; no I’m not, well you’re a Messenger of God, no (laughing) I’m not, well what are you? I am Masih-Mahdi, I am the Christ-Mahdi believe it or not! … You know, for a long time people have been hoping to fulfill the prophecy. The prophecy of the return of Christ or the return of the son of Mary and the presence of a Mahdi who would bring the religion to its original purity… they’ve been looking for that, it’s here now, what they’ve been looking for is here now­But can they appreciate it?”[8]

1980- Proclaims himself, “the Mujaddid”[9] and formally rejects hadith as divine legislation: “If you want all the hadiths, then you should leave this community because I’m telling you, right now, I don’t accept all the hadiths. They have made too much trouble and confusion in the Muslim society.”[10]

1981-Claims those who desire plural marriage are, “cursed by God.”[11] Rules women’s hair is their hijab. “It is believed in the circle of learned scholars in the religion that the hair on women should be covered… Here in our community…we don’t make any big to-do about it. If some woman is seen with her hair uncovered we don’t raise the roof, because I understand that where there is some sex appeal in women’s hair, there is also religious symbolism attached. This symbolism is good but I don’t think we should enforce these laws too fanatically. If we do we might cause people of higher intellect to underestimate our intelligence. They might think we are superstitious or fanatical people and we don’t want them to think that.”[12]

1983- Claims Islam is not a precondition for salvation: “There are some scholars… I’ve heard some people who call themselves scholars in the religion say recently and I have heard this,… that the scriptures I quote referred to earlier times and later scriptures came and cancelled that. That now if anyone rejects our religion, he doesn’t go to paradise. I disagree. I simply disagree.[13]… I don’t feel that all Christians have to have my religion to improve their lives. I don’t feel that… I feel that some Christians are living very good lives. They have very good morals, they have a good sense of direction and I wouldn’t want to disturb that for them. As long as they are doing well I’d like to see them continue to do well.”[14]

Compares those who don’t follow him to dogs: “The word has come down from heaven follow Imam W. Deen Muhammad. Either do that or wear the dog collar and eat dog biscuits.”[15]

Claims: “If Jesus had lived to see 40, he would have died to Jesus and become Prophet Muhammad.”[16]

Claims: “The Quran doesn’t say that Prophet Muhammad is a messenger to the angels or Jinn, but to the people… Prophet Muhammad was sent to Naas, not to the Jinn.”[17]

1984- Calls for establishing his own school of thought: “…we are going to have a school of fiqh and that school is raising up, or growing up right now with the growth of this community, under the leadership of your Imam and my Imam Warith Deen Muhammad. Yes, Imam Warith Deen Muhammad.”[18]


1986- Claims: “The Muslim community also has a community obligation to serve the best interest of other communities Christian, Jewish and even the Socialist community.”[19]

Denies existence of Jinn: “Muslims do not believe that there are some foreign worlds existing out there somewhere. We don’t believe that there are some foreign creatures sharing space with us. We don’t accept the notion of other creatures in another dimension whose nature is not like ours. We don’t believe that there are creatures who can do things to us but we cannot reach them unless we find some way to plug into their foreign dimension. The real Muslim cannot accept that kind of idea. You cannot work voodoo on a Muslim because the Muslim is not vulnerable to superstition.”[20]

1987- Declares: “But my position is this in our society, I have learned by experience, so I have differed with shiekhs, I have differed with leaders of Al-Islam, I have learned by experience in this community, that there is no guarantee, that a Muslim marrying a non-Muslim woman is going to have anymore success in bringing these children to Al-Islam, than a woman will be marrying a non-Muslim man… “[21]

Declares, “I have no problems with the Pope; I respect him and honor him.”[22]

1988- Denies existence of prophetic miracles: “We know that as much as man fears the fire, we know that Abraham was put in the fire. That not right? Yes, Abraham was put in the fire. And when they looked in the, when those who put him in the fire came to see how he was fairing, how he was doing there, whether he was ashes or not, they found him there unaffected. Fire hadn’t touched him, fire hadn’t bothered him a bit. Instead, instead of him experiencing heat, see God made the flame cool on Abraham. (laughter) Now we know that’s metaphorical, that’s symbolic.” [23]

1989- Proudly shows off grandchild from marriage of his daughter to a non-Muslim.[24]

1991- Says Muslims should not invite non-Muslims to Islam: “We (Muslims) are obligated to seek peaceful co-existence with Christians and people of Faith… the similarities are so much more important that we need not focus on the differences. We see Christians and Jews as people of the Book. We should not ask them to take their shahadah…”[25]

Endorses homosexuals during American Public Radio (APR) interview.[26]

1992- Endorses Farrakhan: “I will never denounce him as long as he says he wants to be a Muslim.”[27]

Declares, “We love our distinction as a people, our racial distinction…we want racial dignity and racial distinction. We want cultural distinction. We want that. Even within Islam we want that. We don’t want to copy the culture of another Muslim…we also stress that we owe an allegiance to the Christian people. Also we have to understand that our religion did not come to establish itself over everybody else.”[28]

Speaking at ISNA headquarters: “Mohammed says he does not favor intermarriage between indigenous and immigrant Muslims because African-Americans have suffered greatly at the hands of white America, and they need time by themselves as a race for the psychological scars of racism to heal.”[29]

1993- Claims anyone can be recipient of divine revelation: ‘If any revelation I receive, anybody else can get it, just read Qur’an and God will show us revelation if we’re sincere.’[30]

Claims Farrakhan ‘does a lot of good’: “Farrakhan respects Islam and he does a lot of good, he is friendly with us and we should be friendly with him.”[31]

Declares all non-Muslims Muslims: “If we look at the broad definition for Muslim, we have to say that even though a Christian may be worshipping Jesus the Christ Prophet more than he is worshipping Allah, he or she may be Muslim in their spirit. They may still be Muslim, though the orientation has now dominated their Muslim urge. The person carrying a heavy cross may be a Muslim inwardly. So it is for a Jew, or Communist, or a Buddhist, or a Hindu.”[32]

1994- Implies prophethood to Frederick Douglass and Martin Luther King, calling them: “men of divine wisdom” who predicted the future “in the name of God”.[33]

Denounces interracial marriage and women’s hijab: “Imam Mohammed said he would not encourage mixed marriages. “Marry your own race and people you are acquainted with.”…Covering hair in the mosque for prayer is needed, the Imam explained, but in the public when out shopping it is not a big deal. He noted that a sister can be more seductive with her hair covered than uncovered.”[34]

1998- Claims Paradise is on earth: “In the beginning, God put us in paradise and so shall it be in the end,” Mohammed said. And, pointing a finger to the sky, he added, “Not necessarily up there.”[35]

1999- Celebrates “Savior’s Day” with Farrakhan: “I couldn’t resist coming here knowing that (The Nation of Islam) was observing this day. I haven’t lost my friendship with Minister Farrakhan.”[36]

2000- Selected by MAS to lead Washington Area Muslims for Eid Al-Fitr Prayer at DC Armory.

2001- Claims revelation is continuous and shared between members of other faiths.[37]

Declares all non-Muslims, Muslims. “God created nothing but Muslims.”[38]

2002- Praises Elijah Muhammad and declares lasting brotherhood with Louis Farrakhan.[39]

Claims Jesus is “the second Adam”[40]

2008: “God blessed me with much that was hidden.” Irvington, NJ, July 6, 2008[41]

Aug. 29, 2008, he made what would be his last public appearance. He praised the teachings of Muhammad and Jesus and counseled, “We all … should be trying to be Christlike. He died a month later, in September 2008.” [42]


[1] See Muhammad Speaks, May 23, 1975, pp. 17-19. His referral to himself as ‘The Manifestation of God’ has its links to Elijah’s teachings, as Elijah said that ‘after me will come God himself.’ See Message to the Blackman, p. 306. Thus, W.D. Mohammed labeling himself ‘The Manifestation of God’, is intended to be understood as ‘a fulfillment of prophecy.’

[2] See Lectures of Emam Muhammad, p. 48.

[3] See The Teachings of W.D. Muhammad, p. 13.

[4] See Bilalian News, July 8, 1977, p. 17. His statement “one is better for you if you but knew” is baseless. No such Qur’ânic verse nor Prophetic hadeeth exists that is even remotely close to what he claims.

[5] See Lectures of Emam Muhammad, pp. 118-119.

[6] See Bilalian News, April 21, 1978, p. 9.

[7] See Bilalian News, Sept. 8, 1978, p. 6.

[8] Recording and transcript excerpt from six and one-half hour speech broadcast nationally via ‘telephone hookup’ from Chicago, Ill. on March 25, 1979.

[9] See Bilalian News, February 15, 1980, p. 17.

[10] See Bilalian News, February 22, 1980, p. 24.

[11] See Bilalian News, June 26, 1981, p. 18.

[12] See World Muslim News, November 27, 1981, p. S5.

[13] See Religion on the Line, p. 61.

[14] See ibid. p. 67.

[15] See A. M. Journal, Mar 2, 1983, p. 23.

[16] See A.M. Journal, July 29, 1983, p. 9.

[17] See A. M. Journal, July 29, 1983, p. 2.

[18] See Challenges that Face Man Today, pp. 34-38.

[19] See Muslim Journal, May 16, 1986, p.2.

[20] See An African American Genesis, p. 9.

[21] See Muslim Journal, October 2, 1987.

[22] See Muslim Journal, November 13, 1987, p. 15.

[23] Recorded statements; Detroit, Michigan, March 27, 1988.

[24] See Muslim Journal, June 2, 1989, p. 15.

[25] See Muslim Journal, June 28, 1991, p. 5.

[26] Recorded broadcast, September 4, 1991.

[27] See The Washington Times, Feb. 7, 1992, p. A6.

[28] See Muslim Journal, Feb. 28. 1992, p. 24.

[29] See Islamic Horizons, Summer 1992, p. 8.

[30] Recorded statements, May 14, 1993, Manchester, UK.

[31] See The Muslim News, May 28, 1993, p. 4.

[32] See Muslim Journal, Sept. 10, 1993, p. 17.

[33] See Muslim Journal, January 7, 1994, p. 7.

[34] See Muslim Journal, June 17, 1994.

[35] See Fayetteville (N.C.) Observer-Times, Feb. 16, 1998.

[36] Transcript from NOI “Saviour’s Day” Rally, Chicago, February 26, 1999.

[37] See Muslim Journal, March 17 & 24, 2000; See also The Final Call, March 14 & 21, 2000.

[38] Recorded speech, San Francisco, Nov. 21, 2001.

[39] ibid.

[40] NOI Saviors Day ‘Family Reunion’ speech, Feb. 26, 2002, See Muslim Journal, May 3, 10 & 17, 2002.

[41] See

[42] See

Brutal Legacy

 Editors note: This is an updated revision of my 1995 essay. The original version has for several years been re-posted on numerous websites without my knowledge or permission.
 Minneapolis, Minnesota, Jan. 12, 1995: Malik Shabazz’ daughter, Qubilah, is indicted by a federal grand jury on allegedly trying to hire a hit man to kill ‘Nation of Islam’ leader, Louis Farrakhan, who Malcolm X’s family believes played a role in his 1965 assassination. The FBI announces in a press conference, that Farrakhan was kept informed for seven months of FBI progress in investigating the alleged assassination conspiracy.

The following day, in the wake of public suspicion regarding Farrakhan’s role in Malcolm X’s slaying 30 years earlier, the Nation of Islam moved quickly to shift the focus of public attention from Farrakhan to the government. Nation officials called a press conference and issued a press release which cryptically read, “The identity of the alleged plotters was said to be some members of a ‘Muslim extremist group’. We do not know Ms. Shabazz to be a member of any such group. We call on the FBI to explain their assertion.” Was this true, or was it simply another ploy in a NOI legacy of disinformation?

Indeed, a glimpse into the history and development of ‘The Nation Of Islam,’ shows a group which has traditionally marketed itself as dedicated to the brotherhood, benefit and American black social improvement, while the Nation and the media continually refer to the NOI as the premier American Islamic organization. However, the historical record of the group tells quite a different story. Over the years, a pattern of rampant deceit, manipulation and violence has prevailed; targeting Muslims, African-American critics, and even its own followers, which dates from the very beginning of the movement.

4 photos of Fard
The NOI Diety

For instance, on May 27, 1929, Wallace Dodd Ford, an immigrant New Zealander of Afghani/Caucasian/Polynesian parentage, was released from California’s San Quentin prison after serving three years for selling narcotics in Los Angeles. Upon his prison release, Ford moved to Chicago and then Detroit where he posed as a Bible-toting, itinerant silk and rug peddler ‘from the East.’ Ford attracted a following of poor, working class black migrants by blending an admixture of ideas adapted from Christianity, the Qadiani translation of Qur’an, and concepts from numerous Messianic, Depression-era cult ideologues, i.e. Father Divine, Marcus Garvey, Drew Ali, etc.

Using up to eighteen different aliases, among them, “W. Fard Muhammad,” and “W.D. Fard,” Ford variously identified himself as an Arab, a Hawaiian, a black and a white. He claimed to have been born in Mecca, of being the descendant of Prophet Muhammad, and finally, ‘the Apostle of Allah.’ In Detroit, he met Elijah Poole from Sandersville, Georgia. Poole, an unemployed assembly line worker and former follower of Drew Ali’s “Moorish Temple”, was mesmerized by Ford’s aura and became his devoted follower. Ford changed Poole’s name to Elijah Karriem, and on July 4, 1930, a little more than one year after his prison release, Ford with Karriem’s assistance, formed ‘the Nation Cult of Islam.’

Detroit News, Nov 21, 1932
Detroit News, Nov 21, 1932

For a fee of ten dollars, Ford gave Arabic names to cult members, Elijah and his family going through a series of name changes, finally settling on the name, ‘Muhammad.’ Among Ford’s teachings, was a call for followers to sacrifice whites in order for the person ‘to return to his home in Mecca.’ Followers were encouraged to believe in human sacrifice, ‘of himself or his loved ones if Allah requires it.’ In November of 1932, Robert Karriem Harris, one of the earliest members of ‘the Nation Cult of Islam’, was convicted of murder in Detroit in the sacrificial slaying of Nation follower, James J. Smith, amidst reports of other slayings. This event, referred to in Detroit as the infamous ‘Voodoo Murders,’ led to the confinement of Elijah Karriem (who at the time used the alias, Ghulam Bogans) to a Detroit mental ward and the banishment of his teacher, Wallace Dodd Ford from Detroit to Chicago.

Elijah and Fard ruled insane
Elijah and Fard ruled insane

The departure of Ford from Chicago in 1934, led to deadly power struggles within Elijah Karriem’s own family, as his brother Khallatt Muhammad threatened Elijah and forced him to flee from Detroit to Chicago. With Ford’s departure, Karriem changed his name to Elijah Muhammad, elevated his teacher to the status of ‘Allah in person’ and himself to ‘the Messenger of Allah.’ From the 1940’s onward, the Nation recruited its staunchest following from prisons, devolving into a violent gang-fueled reign of terror against both ex-‘Nation’ followers who renounced Elijah Muhammad and embraced Islam, as well as those who differed on issues with ‘Nation’ leadership. The practice of intimidation and fratricide reached a boiling point during the 1960’s and 70’s as a number of Nation leaders pitted ‘brother against brother’ as if a macabre chess match, this amidst reports of Elijah and his family’s immorality and widespread objections to his teachings.

For example, in 1964 Aubrey Barnett, a former Boston minister under Louis X Farrakhan, quit the group after being fed up with the deceptions. Barnett was soon after viciously assaulted on a Boston street by 13 of Elijah Muhammad’s men. On November 5, 1964, ex-member Kenneth Morton, died from internal injuries suffered when he was beaten by four members of ‘the Nation.’ During the same year, Malcolm X, former national spokesman for Elijah Muhammad, renounced Elijah’s organization, made Hajj and became a Muslim, and officially changed his name to Al-Hajj Malik Shabazz; openly declaring Elijah Muhammad to be a false prophet, thief and fornicator. This led to Elijah printing a series of articles critical of Malik Shabazz in issues of Muhammad Speaks written by Nation ministers, referring to Malik Shabazz as a ‘hypocrite,’ including a call for Malik Shabazz’ death written by Louis X Farrakhan.

Farrakhan calls for Malcolm's death
Farrakhan calls for Malcolm’s death

On January 6, 1965, ex-NOI member Benjamin Brown, who left ‘the Nation’ to establish an Islamic masjid, was shot in front of his masjid. This was followed by a series of repeated attempts on Malik Shabazz’ life by Nation members, culminating in his February 21, 1965 assassination in New York City. This was immediately followed up by the brutal beating in Boston of Leon 4X Ameer, a former bodyguard for Malik Shabazz. Shortly after Malik Shabazz’ assassination, Ameer’s picture was circulated in Muhammad Speaks newspaper as ‘wanted’ for expressing a desire to kill Elijah Muhammad in revenge for the death of Malik Shabazz. Left in a coma for weeks as a result of the beating, Ameer emerged from the hospital in a vegetative state with permanent brain damage. He died shortly thereafter.

In 1968, Hulon Mitchell, Jr. (Min. Hulon X Shah), a former Atlanta head NOI minister, abandoned the NOI with $50,000 sent from NOI Chicago headquarters, moved to Florida with friend Billy Steven Jones, and started their own group, mixing elements of Christianity and Islam. On the night of May 23, 1969, a hit team of three men entered Jones’ and Mitchell’s home/headquarters, opening fire on Jones who returned fire. Two gunmen and Jones died at the scene, the third gunman was captured in Chicago yet oddly, was never prosecuted. Mitchell, who was not present during the shootout, and whom many saw as the real target, later started the Black Hebrew Israelite, ‘Nation of Yahweh’, changing his name to Yahweh Ben Yahweh. Curiously, police never questioned Mitchell and he never afterwards spoke openly about the shooting.

In 1971, twenty-five Nation members walked out of Temple no. 2 in Chicago with the complaint that not enough money collected from members was reaching poor blacks. This led to the murder of one dissident in Chicago, while another who fled to Oakland was murdered there. Between 1970-71 Philadelphia’s ruthless ‘Black Mafia’ became the official extortion arm of the NOI. Operating out of Philadelphia NOI Mosque No. 12 headed by Jeremiah Shabazz, the criminal enterprise controlled drug trafficking, numbers rackets, stolen cars, counterfeit money, armed robbery, extortion, prostitution and a trail of over forty murders. On January 4, 1971, Eight Black Mafia members entered South Street furniture store, where they shot a janitor to death, looted the shop, beat and bound its employees, and set them and the store on fire. The Philadelphia Inquirer called it, “one of the most cold-blooded and inhuman acts in the long criminal history of this town.”
By 1973 the Black Mafia’s criminal web extended to Chicago, Detroit, Baton Rouge, Baltimore, New York, Atlanta and Washington, DC with key members making the FBI’s Most Wanted list.

Front Page from April 14, 1972 story on Fellow policeman salute as the body of Patrolman Phillip Cardillo is borne from Church of the Immaculate Conception in Astoria, Queens. Cardillo, wounded in a struggle in a Black Muslim mosque in Harlem April 14, died last Thursday. One thousand police attended his funeral today.
Front page from April 14, 1972 story

On April 14, 1972, NYPD Officers Phillip Cardillo and Vito Navarra, rushed to the Nation of Islam’s Harlem Temple No. 7 in response to a fake 911 call. The call alleged a police officer was in distress on the second floor. Temple leader Louis Farrakhan, had offices on the third floor. The two officers were met by six to sixteen NOI members, a melee ensued as more police arrived. Officer Cardillo trapped on the inside, was shot and killed. Investigators later named Louis Farrakhan’s driver, Louis 17X Dupree, as the main suspect. An unrepentant Farrakhan stated the officers had come “charging into our temple like criminals and were treated like criminals.”

On January 18, 1973 in Washington DC, the most gruesome of murders took place when several assassins were dispatched from Elijah Muhammad’s Philadelphia Mosque No. 12 to kill ex-follower Hamaas Abdul Khaalis, who had written dozens of letters to Elijah’s temples nationwide, calling Elijah a ‘lying deceiver who was stealing his followers’ money and dooming them to Hell’. The assassins entered Hamaas’ home, finding seven members of his family, all women and children. The assassins beat and shot the women and children numerous times, robbing and ransacking the house, then drowning two infants in a sink and tub. Hamaas’ daughter Amina, who survived despite being shot six times in the head at close range, recalled that one of the killers asked her, “Why did your father write those letters?” His last words to her were, “Don’t mess with Elijah.” The killers fled, but following a nationwide manhunt, all were captured and convicted, four of them sentenced to 140 years in prison. On May 1, 1973, author Hakim A. Jamal, a cousin of Malik Shabazz and like him an outspoken critic of Elijah Muhammad, was gunned down by four Nation members in his New England home. In June of 1973, career con-artist and gangster intermediary Major Coxson was found bound and executed in his posh Cherry Hill home, along with three others who were also bound and shot. The lead suspects were Black Mafia leaders Sam Christian and Ronald Harvey, both participants in the January DC Hanafi murders.

Between late 1973 and mid-1974, the city of San Francisco was terrorized by the ‘Zebra’ serial killings carried out by followers of Elijah Muhammad. Reviving the original 1930’s Nation teachings, the killers believed that godhood could be achieved by murdering non-blacks. For a 179-day period, the killers brutally assaulted, robbed, and sodomized a total of twenty-three persons, leaving fifteen dead, including Jordanian Muslim, Saleem Hassan Erakat.

Newark rampage
NOI Attacks Muslims

After Elijah Muhammad’s death on February 25, 1975, his son, W.D. Mohammed, ascended to the leadership; in the process, reshaping the NOI organization and its beliefs. Yet on November 22, 1975, twelve members of the Islamic Party of North America, which had written newspaper articles denouncing the son’s refusal to renounce his father’s beliefs, were attacked and beaten in broad daylight with clubs, claw-hammers, tire irons and pipes in Newark, New Jersey by followers of W.D. Mohammed.

In 1977, Louis Farrakhan, disgruntled with organizational changes under W.D. Mohammed, left W.D. Mohammed’s leadership to re-start the organization and beliefs of the former ‘Nation’. His group today commands a following which includes a variety of current and former street gang members, rap artists, and black nationalists. During Jesse Jackson’s 1984 Presidential campaign Louis Farrakhan issued a death threat against black Washington Post reporter Milton Coleman for Coleman revealing a private conversation Jackson had with campaign aides.

The violent pattern continued in 1988 as members of Farrakhan’s ‘Dope-Busters’ assaulted black NBC reporter Joe Johns and cameraman Harry Davis on April 18 in Washington DC while Johns and Davis videotaped a story on them. This was followed by a brutal attack in October 1990 on Howard University campus by fifteen Farrakhan members upon two Muslim university students following their public criticism of Farrakhan and Elijah Muhammad. In May of 1993, W.D. Mohammed, declared in a London interview with The Muslim News, that Louis Farrakhan ‘respects Islam’ and ‘he does a lot of good.’ He added: “He is friendly with us and we should be friendly with him.”

The Beltway Sniper
The Beltway Sniper

Over a three week period in October 2002, NOI member John Allen Muhammad murdered 10 people in what was known as the ‘DC Beltway Sniper’ rampage. In 1995 John Allen Muhammad had provided security for Louis Farrakhan’s Million Man March, yet on Oct. 26 following Muhammad’s arrest, Farrakhan distanced himself and the NOI from John Allen Muhammad.

In recent years, Chicago, Illinois, has sadly become recognized as the murder capital of America. Yet during his February 2013 Chicago Saviours Day rally, Louis Farrakhan appealed to the cities’ ‘gangbangers’, saying they are “natural soldiers” who could be taught “the science of war” to become protectors of the Nation of Islam’s assets.

In the end, the NOI’s legacy from human sacrifices to assassination to gang-banger recruitment, remains its sordid trail that leads back to Elijah Muhammad’s doorstep.



Braden, Charles Samuel, These Also Believe: A Study of Modern American Cults and Minority Religious Movements, (MacMillan, NY, 1949)

Breitman, George, Herman Porter & Baxter Smith, The Assassination of Malcolm X, (Pathfinder Press, NY, 1976)

Carson, Claybourne, Malcolm X, The FBI File, (Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc. NY, NY 1991)

Evanzz, Karl, The Judas Factor, The Plot to Kill Malcolm X, (Thunder’s Mouth Press, NY, 1992)

———- The Messenger, The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad, (Vintage Books, New York, 1999)

Freedberg, Sydney P., Brother Love: Murder, Money, and a Messiah, (Pantheon Books, NY, 1994)

Friedly, Michael, Malcolm X, The Assassination, (Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc. NY, NY, 1992)

Griffin, Sean Patrick, Philadelphia’s ‘Black Mafia’, A Social and Political History, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003)

———-Black Brothers Inc., The Violent Rise and Fall of Philadelphia’s Black Mafia, (Milo Books Ltd. Preston, UK, 2005)

Howard, Clark, Zebra: the true account of the 179 days of terror in San Francisco, (R. Marek Publishers, NY, 1979)

Melton, J. Gordon, Encyclopedia of African American Religions, [with Larry G. Murphy & Gary L. Ward] (Garland Publishing Co., New York, 1993)

Perry, Bruce, Malcolm, The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America, (Station Hill Press, Berrytown, NY, 1991)

X, Malcolm, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, (Grove Press, Inc. NY, NY, 1965)

———-Malcolm X, The Last Speeches, (Edited by Bruce Perry; Pathfinder Books, NY, NY, 1990)

———-February 1965, The Final Speeches, (Pathfinder Books, NY, NY, 1992)



Ansari, Zafar Ishaq, W.D. Muhammad: The Making of a “Black Muslim” Leader (1933-1961), (The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Jointly published by AMSS/IIIT, vol. 2, no. 2)

Barnett, Aubrey, The Black Muslims Are a Fraud, (Saturday Evening Post, February 27, 1965)

Beynon, Erdmann Doane, The Voodoo Cult Among Negro Migrants in Detroit, (The American Journal of Sociology, The University of Chicago Press, vol. XLIII, July 1937-May 1938)

Block, Merv, Elijah Muhammad –black paradox, (Chicago Sun-Times, March 26, 1972)

Black Leader Slain by Boston Gunmen; Muslim Feud Hinted. (The New York Times, May 3, 1973)

Muslim feud seen behind Boston death (The Washington Afro-American, May 8, 1973)

Daley, Robert; The Untold Story Behind the Harlem Mosque Shooting, (New York Magazine, June 4, 1973)

The Detroit News, Head of Cult Admits Killing (Nov. 21, 1932)

———-Leader of Cult Called Insane, (Nov. 22, 1932)

———-Leader of Cult to be Quizzed, (Nov. 23, 1932)

———-Cult Slayer Pleads Guilty, (Nov. 25, 1932)

The Final Call, Farrakhan addresses D.C.-area sniper case during press conference (Oct. 26, 2002)

Islamic Party of North America, ‘Black Muslims’ Still Unbelievers, (Al-Islam: The Islamic Movement Journal, vol. 4, no. 4 Rajab-Shaban 1395/July–August 1975 & Sept.-Oct. 1975)

———-Elijah and Fard Must Go!, (vol. 4, no. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1975)

———-Blood in the Cause of Allah, The Attack-Its Meaning (vol. 5, no. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1976)

Muhammad Speaks, Louis X Farrakhan: To Follow Malcolm is to be Doomed (December 4, 1964)

New York Amsterdam News, Gil Noble urges Farrakhan, Tell us about your role in Malcolm X’s murder, (November 16, 1985)

Time Magazine, Punish the Traitor: Milton Coleman, (Monday, April 16, 1984)

The Muslim News, Imam Warith in London, (London, May 28, 1993)

The Sunday Star-Ledger, Muslims attacked in Newark, (November 23, 1975)

Philadelphia Daily News, X Terminator? Farrakhan admits setting mood in ’65 (January 13, 1995)

Walsh, Edward, Farrakhan Says U.S. Concocted Plot Charge, (The Washington Post, Jan. 18, 1995)

Interview with NBC/CNN reporter Joe Johns, (Washington, DC, 1993)

Griffin, Sean Patrick, Requiem for a Gangster, (Philadelphia Inquirer, March 13, 2016)



© 2016 A. Idris Palmer